Развитие английского языка

История английского языка

Как появился, развивался и как происходил процесс становления английского языка.Начнем с того, что исторически английский язык развивался совместно с историей Англии...

Грамматика - Бизнес и числа


0 oh, nought, zero
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty
21 twenty one
30 thirty
40 forty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety
100 a hundred/one hundred
107 a hundred and seven
177 a hundred and seventy seven
1,000 a thousand/one thousand
1,007 a thousand and seven
1,777 one thousand, seven hundred and seventy seven
10,000 ten thousand
100,000 a hundred thousand
100,007 a hundred thousand and seven
100,707 a hundred thousand, seven hundred and seven
1,000,000 a million
1,000,000,000 a billion

Use of dozen, hundred, thousand etc.

The numbers , when preceded by another number, are never made plural:

  • two dozen eggs
  • seven hundred pounds
  • ten thousand units

If, however, these words are used loosely, merely to convey the idea of a large number, they must be made plural and followed by the preposition :

  • dozens of times
  • hundreds of jobs
  • thousands of spare parts

is more usual than before etc., when these numbers stand alone or begin an expression:

  • 100 = a hundred
  • 1,000 = a thousand
  • 100,000 = a hundred thousand

One can also say , etc. up to and etc. up to . Otherwise is used — not :

  • 1,025 = a/one thousand and twenty-five


  • 1,125 = one thousand, one hundred and twenty-five

Use of preposition Of

The preposition is not used with definite numbers except before or possessives:

  • two of the companies
  • two of them
  • two of these/those (products)
  • two of the company's divisions

Ways of saying long numbers

In Britain they use a comma (,) not a point (.) for thousands and millions. This is different from the system in Russia. Numbers composed of four or more figures are divided into groups of three. After the first figure in each group they say and at the comma say .

  • 777,777,777 = seven hundred and seventy-seven million, seven hundred and seventy-seven thousand, seven hundred and seventy-seven

If there are 's in the number, you do not say them:

  • 100,007 = a hundred thousand and seven.

There are different ways of saying numbers greater than a hundred:

  • 570 = five hundred and seventy, five seventy, five seven oh.

The numbers are sometimes said as etc.

Account numbers

For long numbers such as account numbers, it is usual to say the figures individually. For example, you would say the number 175298 as . The number is usually said as , although and are sometimes used instead.

Use of About, Somewhere About, Around, Round to give approximate numbers

are used hi front of numbers to show that they are approximate, e.g.

  • They have already sold about nine thousand machines of this model. It will cost somewhere about £100.

A round number/a round figure means that it is an easy number to remember because it is a whole number, probably ending with .

  • a couple (of) = 2
  • a dozen = 12
  • a baker's dozen = 13
  • a score (of) = 20
  • a gross (of) = 144


1st first
17th seventeenth
2nd second
18th eighteenth
3rd third
19th nineteenth
4th fourth
20th twentieth
5th fifth
21st twenty-first
6th sixth
30th thirtieth
7th seventh
40th fortieth
8th eighth
50th fiftieth
9th ninth
60th sixtieth
10th tenth
70th seventieth
11th eleventh
80th eightieth
12t twelfth
90th ninetieth
13th thirteenth
100th hundredth
14th fourteenth
101st hundred and first
15th fifteenth
200th two hundredth
16th sixteenth
1,000th thousandth

The definite article the before ordinal numbers

  • The second contract.
  • The fourth item of Clause 2.

Two ways of expressing Ordinals: in words and in figures. When Ordinals are expressed in figures the last two letters of the written word must be added.

  • first = 1st
  • twenty-first = 21st
  • second = 2nd
  • fifty-second = 52nd
  • third = 3rd
  • seventy-third = 73rd
  • fourth = 4th
  • ninetieth = 90th

Notice the irregular spelling of .

Use of and in compound Ordinals

The rule about in compound Ordinals is the same as for compound Cardinals:

  • 101st = the hundred and first

Titles of kings, tzars etc.

Roman figures are used for titles of kings in writing, though Ordinals proceeded by the are used in spoken English:

  • Elizabeth II = Elizabeth the Second
  • Peter I = Peter the First

Fractions: decimal and vulgar

1/2 a half/one half
2/3 two-thirds
1/3 a third/one third
3/4 three quarters
1/4 a quarter/one quarter
2/5 two-fifths
1/5 a fifth/one fifth
5/6 five-sixths
1/6 a sixth/one sixth
4/7 four-sevenths
1/7 a seventh/one seventh
3/8 three-eighths
1/8 an eighth/one eighth
2/9 two-ninths
1/9 a ninth/one ninth
3/10 three-tenths
1/10 a tenth/one tenth
7/20 seven-twentieths
1/11 an eleventh/one eleventh
1/12 a twelfth/one twelfth
21/2 two and a half
1/13 a thirteenth/one thirteenth
33/4 three and three quarters
1/20 a twentieth/one twentieth
72/5 seven and two-fifths
1/100 a hundredth/one hundredth
1/1000 a thousandth/one thousandth

Ways of expressing decimals

Decimals are indicated by a dot, which is read point. In Britain they use a point, not a comma for decimals. This is different from what we have in Russia.

In decimals, an has two names: if it comes before the decimal point, it is called nought; after the decimal point, it is pronounced . In scientific English the is called zero before and after the point. But would also be possible in both positions.

Numbers before the decimal point are said normally (seven, seventy-five, seven hundred, etc.). After the point, however, all the numbers are said separately, i.e. each number by itself. So 77.77 is .

Decimals are used for large numbers to give the approximate figure. Making the figure smaller to the nearest convenient unit is called rounding down: 7,218,463 to 7.2 m. Making the figure larger to the nearest convenient unit is called rounding up: 7,278,463 to 7.3 m.

  • 0.7 = nought-point-seven
  • 0.07 = nought-point-oh-seven
  • 0.007 = nought-point-oh-oh-seven
  • 0.77 = nought-point-seven-seven
  • 77.777 = seventy-seven-point-seven-seven-seven
  • 777.777 = seven hundred and seventy-seven-point-seven-seven-seven
  • 7.7 m = seven-point-seven million

Ways of expressing vulgar fractions

In Britain, like in Russia, they express Fractions in the smallest digits possible: not but ... etc.

When the top figure is greater than the bottom figure (e.g. ), the usual spoken forms are , . This is useful for pronouncing expressions with many digits, e.g. 713/986 usually read as .

A combination of a whole number and a fraction

A combination of a whole number and a fraction can be followed directly by a plural noun:

  • 71/4 tons = seven and a quarter tons
  • 21/2 hours = two and a half hours

1/2 (half) can be followed directly by a noun, but other Fractions require of before a noun:

  • half a mile but a quarter of a mile.


Percentage is usually made singular and followed by preposition , e.g.

Percentages (%) are spoken like this: 72% — , with the stress on the second word — .

  • Last week the company sold a high percentage of its stock.
  • A low percentage of clients pay their bills promptly.
  • What is the percentage of wood in this material?
  • What percentage of the profits goes in tax?
  • Last year the price of meat increased by 15 per cent.
  • Could you give us a 5% discount/a discount of 5%?
  • Last year inflation fell to 8.5%.
  • There has been a rise of 3 per cent.

Prepositions most often used in the context of trends

  • The price has risen 7 per cent.
  • There has been an increase 5 per cent industrial investment.
  • The figure currently stands 3 per cent.
  • Profits fell $10m last year.
  • The personnel had to be reduced 100 65.

Special emphasis on the difference between to and by

  • Production fell (from 100 units) to 75 units.
  • Production fell by 25 units, i.e. by 25 per cent

Use of regular and irregular verbs


accelerate, bottom out, decelerate, decline, decrease, drop, erode, flatten out, fluctuate, hover around, improve, increase, jump, level out, peak, pick up, plunge, recover, stabilise, steady.


fall fell fallen
go down went gone
go up went gone
rise rose risen
shoot up shot shot

Use of introductory there + be for describing trends

  • There was a 5% increase in production last year.
  • There were falls in production last year.
  • There has been a reduction in investment.

Use of tenses for describing trends

1. Simple present:

  • Sales fall every summer.

2. Present continuous:

  • Sales are falling dramatically.

3. Simple past:

  • Sales fell last year.

4. Present perfect:

  • Sales have fallen by 7%.
  • Sales have fallen to $10m.

5. Present perfect continuous:

  • Sales have been falling for two years.

Use of by a factor of

If something increases or decreases by a factor of a stated number, it becomes that number of times bigger or smaller.

  • Its weight went up by a factor of eight. — Его вес увеличился в восемь раз.

Use of intensifiers and softeners

Intensifiers and softeners to indicate the extent of changes, upward and downward movements:

  • There has been a slight drop in profits last quarter.
  • Profits rose dramatically last year.
  • Profits were slightly lower last month.

an acceleration to accelerate
a climb to climb
an increase to increase
a jump to jump
a rise to rise
a peak to peak
  to shoot up
  to go up

a deceleration to decelerate
a decline to decline
a decrease to decrease
a drop to drop
a fall to fall
  to go down
  to bottom out

an improvement to improve
a recovery to recover
a pick up  
  to pick up
  to gather momentum

Fluctuation and stability:
a fluctuation to fluctuate
a stabilisation to stabilise
  to hover around
  to level out
  to flatten out
  to steady

Cause-and-effect formulas

Linking effect to cause:

  • (to be) due to
  • to be caused by
  • to result from
  • to be the result of
  • to be brought about by owing to
  • because of

Linking cause to effect:

  • to cause
  • to lead to
  • to result in
  • to bring about
  • to be the reason for


  • a great deal (higher)
  • considerable
  • (fluctuated) considerably (higher)
  • (a) dramatic (rise)
  • (rose) dramatically (lower)
  • far (lower)
  • much (lower)
  • (rose) quickly
  • (rose) rapidly
  • (a) sharp (drop)
  • sharply
  • stable (increase)
  • (a) steady (rise)
  • (rose) steadily
  • substantial
  • substantially (lower)
  • (a) sudden (rise)
  • (rose) suddenly


  • (a) little (lower)
  • around (Their share hovered around 20%)
  • (a) bearly noticeable (rise
  • over this period)
  • fractionally (higher)
  • (a) gentle (rise)
  • (rose) gently
  • (a) gradual (fall, decline)
  • gradually
  • marginally (lower)
  • (a) slight (rise)
  • slightly (higher)
  • somewhat (lower)
  • (fell) somewhat (to 300,000)

Use of tenses with expressions which denote time points or periods to describe the content of a diagram

  • The company launched its new product in February.
  • Last year witnessed a steady increase in sales.
  • Sales fell dramatically from 400 to 280 units in one year.
  • Sales are falling at present.
  • As you see, sales have been falling steadily over the past two years.
  • They will probably fluctuate considerably this year.
  • If sales increase next month, so too will the profits of the company.

Prepositions used when referring to a diagram

  • I'd like you to look at this graph.
  • If you refer to this bar chart, you will see that...
  • The information on this chart points out...
  • Looking at the next year on the table, we can see that...

Use of a diagram as a method of presenting information, an excellent support to a presentation

Requirements for a diagram to make it effective: if you want to introduce a diagram into your presentation, make sure that it is easily readable and does not contain too much information. Normally there are two stages to describing any diagram. First you introduce the diagram and explain clearly what it represents (the title of the diagram, its structure). Then you describe the content of the diagram, direct people's attention to significant features and make conclusions.

Words and phrases commonly associated with Diagrams

  • Describe a diagram
  • Draw a diagram
  • Explain a diagram
  • Interprete a diagram
  • Introduce a diagram
  • Present a diagram
  • Study a diagram
  • The diagram
  • demonstrates
  • indicates
  • represents
  • shows
  • suggests

Ways of expressing Dates

Year Dates. Two versions of reading and speaking year Dates in English:

  1. Numbers are said in pairs without any link between them. If there is an 0, it is pronounced as . The word hundred is used in such Dates as 1700, 1800, 1900.
  2. Numbers are said in pairs but between the pairs we say . is not pronounced in this version. Dates such as 1700, 1800, 1900 are said in the same way as in the first version.

  • 1900 = .
  • 1905 = or .
  • 1919 = or .
  • 1925 = or .
  • 1990 = or .

When speaking of years, one says , not .

Decades (a period of 10 years) commonly begin with years ending in , for example, 1960–1969, 1930–1939. Such Dates are most commonly written as the 1960s, the 1930s etc. which are read and spoken as:

  • or or
  • or or , e.g. .

One can also talk about , , and .

Centuries (periods of a hundred years):

  • 1701–1800: the eighteenth century
  • 1901–2000: the twentieth century

Use of BC/AD

Years/centuries before the Christian era are followed by the letters BC (Before Christ) and years/centuries dating from the Christian era are sometimes preceded by the letters AD (Anno Domini).

  • 1220 BC = twelve-twenty BC

Days and months (always written with capital letters)

The days of the week:

  1. Monday
  2. Tuesday
  3. Wednesday
  4. Thursday
  5. Friday
  6. Saturday
  7. Sunday

The months of the year:

  1. January
  2. February
  3. March
  4. April
  5. May
  6. June
  7. July
  8. August
  9. September
  10. October
  11. November
  12. December

A variety of ways in writing Dates

Dates can be written in a variety of ways:

  • 1st September
  • 1 September
  • September 1st
  • September 1

Only two ways in pronouncing Dates

Dates can be said in two ways:

  • the first of September
  • September the first

In Britain they tend to write the day first, then the month. In numbers it is always the day first: e.g. 2/8/94 means: 2nd August 1994. But the same date in the U.S.A. would be: 8th February 1994.

Use of determiners (or their omission) for asking and saying the time:

  • What's the time now?
  • What time is it?
  • Can you tell me the time?
  • Have you got the time?


  • a quarter to one.
  • quarter to one.
  • quarter past one.

Time prepositions

  • five o'clock.
  • nine morning.
  • Ten minutes eleven.
  • Ten minutes eleven
  • 9 a.m. 5 p.m.

Differentiation of G.M.T. from local time to avoid misunderstanding

G.M.T. stands for Greenwich Mean Time, the standard time. Times in the rest of the world are compared to this and said to be a number of hours earlier or later. European time is normally one hour later than G.M.T.

Britain also uses summer time which is one hour ahead of G.M.T. Britain is generally 3 hours behind Russia (Moscow time in fact).

Use of the word o'clock

The word is used to refer to a particular time only on the hour, i.e. only when the long hand is at twelve.

  • Two o'clock.
  • Nine o'clock.

Use of the words hours and hundred

In speech:

  • 11.00 = eleven hours/eleven hundred hours
  • 8.00 = eight hours/eight hundred hours
  • 08.00 = oh-eight hundred hours

Appropriate words to mention an approximate time

  • At about ten minutes to seven.
  • It is nearly one o'clock.
  • I get up at about quarter past seven.

Use of a.m./p.m.

is used to refer to a particular time between midnight and noon. is used between noon and midnight.

A variety of ways of referring to time in English

Twenty-four hour clock especially for timetables in airports and stations.

  • 00.00
  • 12 o'clock
  • 12 p.m.
  • twelve
  • twelve at night
  • midnight
  • twenty-four hours G.M.T/local time
  • 00.15
  • a quarter past twelve
  • quarter past twelve
  • twelve fifteen
  • twenty-four fifteen G.M.T/local time
  • 03.30
  • 3.30 a.m.
  • half past three
  • half past three in the morning
  • half three
  • three thirty
  • 06.25
  • twenty-five past six
  • twenty-five minutes past six
  • twenty-five minutes past six in the morning
  • six twenty-five
  • 08.48
  • twelve minutes to nine
  • twelve minutes to nine in the morning
  • eight forty-eight
  • 12.00
  • 12 o'clock
  • 12 a.m.
  • twelve
  • twelve in the morning
  • midday
  • noon
  • twelve hours
  • 12.45
  • a quarter to one
  • quarter to one
  • twelve forty-five
  • 12.10
  • ten past twelve
  • ten minutes past twelve
  • ten minutes past twelve in the afternoon
  • twelve ten
  • 14.00
  • 2 o'clock
  • 2 p.m.
  • two
  • two in the afternoon
  • fourteen hours
  • 18.00
  • 6 o'clock
  • 6 p.m.
  • six
  • six in the evening
  • 21.00
  • 9 o'clock
  • 9 p.m.
  • nine
  • nine in the evening
  • nine at night
  • twenty-one hours

Britain is increasingly using a 24 hour clock, e.g. 1 p.m. is 13.00. is never used with numbers higher than 12, e.g. one o'clock in the afternoon not thirteen o'clock.

Way of saying British telephone numbers

All the numbers are said separately, so 147 5474 is .

is said , so 207 161 784 is .

When the same number occurs twice, it can be either said twice or called , so 77 can be or .

There is a pause after the third digit if the number is more than six digits long. Many people also place a space here in writing.

For non-local calls, the is often given instead of the name of the town etc. There is always a pause after the area code. In writing the area code is often in brackets.

  • (0181) 449 2187 = oh-one-eight-one, four-four-nine, two-one-eight-seven

Repetition of telephone numbers to avoid misunderstanding

Telephone numbers are often given in groups and native speakers always check that they have heard correctly for example:

— What's your phone number?

— It's one-four-seven...

— ...one-four-seven...

— ...five-four-seven-four.

— ...five-four-seven-four.

Use of words pound and sterling

The word pound is used for normal conversation, in the language of economics sterling is used. The symbol of the pound is written before the number but you say:

  • £70 = seventy pounds

The letter p which stands for pence is written after the number and you say:

  • 70p = seventy pence or seventy p

Ways of expressing an amount of money consisting of both pounds and pence

If an amount of money consists of both pounds and pence, then you normally use only the symbol for the pound:

  • £19.99 = nineteen pounds ninety-nine pence, nineteen pounds ninety-nine, nineteen ninety-nine

Major economic and financial indicators

Microeconomic level:

  • Price list
  • Order
  • Invoice
  • Balance sheet
  • Profit and loss account

Macroeconomic level:

  • Output, Demand and Jobs
  • Prices and Wages
  • Stock price indices
  • Trade, exchange rates and reserves

Vocabulary for financial reports

balance sheet бухгалтерский баланс
fixed assets основные средства
current assets оборотные фонды, оборотные средства
net assets employed стоимость имущества за вычетом обязательств
net current assets оборотные средства за вычетом обязательств
total assets сумма баланса, общая стоимость имущества
intangibles нематериальные активы
tangibles материальные ценности
stocks государственные ценные бумаги
bonds облигации
shares акции
debtors дебиторы
cash наличные деньги
current liabilities текущая задолженность
secured liability on property задолженность, гарантированная собственностью
creditors кредиторы
trade creditors торговые кредиторы
long-term creditors долгосрочные кредиторы
loan заем, ссуда
bank loan банковский кредит
long-term loans долгосрочный кредит
bank overdraft перерасход средств, превышение кредита
accrued interest payable наросшие проценты
revaluation ревальвация (повышение ранее установленной стоимости валюты)
reserves запасы
debentures долговое обязательство; облигация
total capital employed используемый капитал, применяемый капитал
capital accounts счет предприятия, статьи движения капиталов
current accounts эксплуатационные/текущие расходы
tax налог; пошлина, сбор
taxation обложение налогом; налогообложение; взимание налога
deferred taxation отсроченная уплата налогов
turnover товарооборот
costs затраты, расходы, издержки
direct costs прямые издержки
fixed costs фиксированные расходы
profit выгода, полезность, польза
gross profit валовая прибыль
operating profit доход от операций
profit before tax прибыль до уплаты налогов/подоходного налога
profit after tax прибыль после уплаты налогов
net profit чистая прибыль
retained profit удерживаемая прибыль
profit and loss account счет прибылей и убытков
extraordinary item особая статья
share capital акционерный капитал
share premium account льготный
minority shareholders миноритарные акционеры
shareholders' funds фонды акционеров
preference shareholders' dividend прибыль на льготную акцию
ordinary shareholders' dividend прибыль на обычную акцию
retained earnings аккумулированные доходы
earnings per share доход на акцию
income доход, приход, прибыль; заработок
expenses затраты
bank charges and interest банковская комиссия и проценты
depreciation обесценивание

Economic and financial measurements

выпуск; выработка; добыча output
объем промышленного производства industrial production
валовой национальный продукт GNP/gross national product
валовый внутренний продукт GDP/gross domestic product
спрос demand
розничная торговля retail sale
рабочие места jobs
уровень безработицы unemployment rate
цены (оптовые и розничные) prices (consumer prices, wholesale prices)
заработная плата wages/earnings
цены поставки со склада stock prices
показатель, признак index (indices)
торговый баланс trade balance
текущий счет current account
exchange rates обменный курс
currency units названия валют
foreign reserves резервы зарубежом

Выражение множественности

Для образования множественного числа исчисляемых существительных служит окончание –s. Для выражения множественности в английском языке служат слова типа many, much, a lot of, plenty of, обозначающие....

Вторая форма глагола

Вторая, или прошедшая, форма глагола обозначает формы типа: делал, писал, читал. Вторая форма большинства глаголов образуется с помощью окончания –ed ('call — called, play — played, paint — painted'). Однако ряд глаголов....

Все временные конструкции в активном залоге

  Present Past Future Future– in– the– Past
Simple (Indefinite) He sometimes, usually, often, rarely, seldom from time to time, always, never writes letters everyday, on Saturdays, at the weekend, in the....

Времена и месяцы года

Обратите внимание, что названия месяцев года всегда пишутся с большой буквы.

Winter зима
December декабрь
January январь
February февраль
spring весна
March март
April апрель
May май
summer лето
June июнь
July июль
August август
autumn осень
September сентябрь
October октябрь
November ноябрь

Грамматика - Виды вопросительных предложений

Общие вопросы образуются: вспомогательный (), или модальный, или + подлежащее + сказуемое (остальные глаголы) + остальные члены предложения.

Do you know her?
Have you seen her?
Can you do this?
Was it made....

Грамматика - Виды предложений

Повелительное наклонение образуется глаголом в неопределенной форме без частицы .

Close the door. Закрой дверь.
Don't do it! Не делай этого!

Побудительное наклонение образуется с помощью....