Развитие английского языка

История английского языка

Как появился, развивался и как происходил процесс становления английского языка.Начнем с того, что исторически английский язык развивался совместно с историей Англии...

Грамматика - 100 Most Often Misspelled Words In English

acceptable Several words made the list because of the suffix pronounced -кbl but sometimes spelled -ible, sometimes -able. Just remember to accept any table offered to you and you will spell this word OK.
accidentally It is no accident that the test for adverbs on -ly is whether they come from an adjective on -al ("accidental" in this case). If so, the -al has to be in the spelling. No publical, then publicly.
accommodate Remember, this word is large enough to accommodate both a double "c" AND a double "m".
acquire Try to acquire the knowledge that this word and the next began with the prefix ad- but the [d] converts to [c] before [q].
acquit See the previous discussion.
a lot Two words! Hopefully, you won't have to allot a lot of time to this problem.
amateur Amateurs need not be mature: this word ends on the French suffix -eur (the equivalent of English -er).
apparent A parent need not be apparent but "apparent" must pay the rent, so remember this word always has the rent.
argument Let's not argue about the loss of this verb's silent [e] before the suffix -ment.
atheist Lord help you remember that this word comprises the prefix a- "not" + the "god" (also in the-ology) + -ist "one who believes."
believe You must believe that [i] usually comes before [e] except after [c] or when it is pronounced like "a" as "neighbor" and "weigh" or "e" as in "their" and "heir." Also take a look at "foreign" below. (The "i-before-e" rule has more exceptions than words it applies to.)
bellwether Often misspelled "bellweather." A wether is a gelded ram, chosen to lead the herd (thus his bell) due to the greater likelihood that he will remain at all times ahead of the ewes.
calendar This word has an [e] between two [a]s. The last vowel is [a].
category This word is not in a category with "catastrophe" even if it sounds like it: the middle letter is [e].
cemetery Don't let this one bury you: it ends on -ery—nary an -ary in it. You already know it starts on [c], of course.
changeable The verb "change" keeps its [e] here to indicate that the [g] is soft, not hard. (That is also why "judgement" is the correct spelling of this word, no matter what anyone says.)
collectible Another -ible word. You just have to remember.
column Silent final [e] is commonplace in English but a silent final [n] is not uncommon, especially after [m].
committed If you are committed to correct spelling, you will remember that this word doubles its final [t] from "commit" to "committed."
conscience Don't let misspelling this word weigh on your conscience: [ch] spelled "sc" is unusual but legitimate.
conscientious Work on your spelling conscientiously and remember this word with [ch] spelled two different ways: "sc" and "ti". English spelling!
conscious Try to be conscious of the "sc" [ch] sound and all the vowels in this word's ending and i-o-u a note of congratulations.
consensus The census does not require a consensus, since they are not related.
daiquiri Don't make yourself another daiquiri until you learn how to spell this funny word—the name of a Cuban village.
definite(ly) This word definitely sounds as though it ends only on -it, but it carries a silent "e" everywhere it goes.
discipline A little discipline, spelled with the [s] and the [c] will get you to the correct spelling of this one.
drunkenness You would be surprised how many sober people omit one of the [n]s in this one.
dumbbell Even smart people forget one of the [b]s in this one. (So be careful who you call one when you write.)
embarrass(ment) This one won't embarrass you if you remember it is large enough for a double [r] AND a double [s].
equipment This word is misspelled "equiptment" 22,932 times on the web right now.
exhilarate Remembering that [h] when you spell this word will lift your spirits and if you remember both [a]s, it will be exhilarating!
exceed Remember that this one is -ceed, not -cede. (To exceed all expectations, master the spellings of this word, "precede" and "supersede" below.)
existence No word like this one spelled with an [a] is in existence. This word is a menage a quatre of one [i] with three [e]s.
experience Don't experience the same problem many have with "existence" above in this word: -ence!
fiery The silent "e" on "fire" is also cowardly: it retreats inside the word rather than face the suffix -y.
foreign Here is one of several words that violate the i-before-e rule. (See "believe" above.)
gauge You must learn to gauge the positioning of the [a] and [u] in this word. Remember, they are in alphabetical order (though not the [e]).
grateful You should be grateful to know that keeping "great" out of "grateful" is great.
guarantee I guarantee you that this word is not spelled like "warranty" even though they are synonyms.
harass This word is too small for two double letters but don't let it harass you, just keep the [r]s down to one.
height English reaches the height (not heighth!) of absurdity when it spells "height" and "width" so differently.
hierarchy The i-before-e rule works here, so what is the problem?
humorous Humor us and spell this word "humorous": the [r] is so weak, it needs an [o] on both sides to hold it up.
ignorance Don't show your ignorance by spelling this word -ence!
immediate The immediate thing to remember is that this word has a prefix, in- "not" which becomes [m] before [m] (or [b] or [p]). "Not mediate" means direct which is why "immediately" means "directly."
independent Please be independent but not in your spelling of this word. It ends on -ent.
indispensable Knowing that this word ends on -able is indispensable to good writing.
inoculate This one sounds like a shot in the eye. One [n] the eye is enough.
intelligence Using two [l]s in this word and ending it on -ence rather than -ance are marks of . . . you guessed it.
its/it's The apostrophe marks a contraction of "it is." Something that belongs to it is "its."
jewelry Sure, sure, it is made by a jeweler but the last [e] in this case flees the scene like a jewel thief. However, if you prefer British spelling, remember to double the [l]: "jeweller," "jewellery." (See also pronunciation.)
judgment Traditionally, the word has been spelled judgment in all forms of the English language. However, the spelling judgement (with e added) largely replaced judgment in the United Kingdom in a non-legal context. In the context of the law, however, judgment is preferred. This spelling change contrasts with other similar spelling changes made in American English, which were rejected in the UK. In the US at least, judgment is still preferred and judgement is considered incorrect by many American style guides.
kernel (colonel) There is more than a kernel of truth in the claim that all the vowels in this word are [e]s. So why is the military rank (colonel) pronounced identically? English spelling can be chaotic.
leisure Yet another violator of the i-before-e rule. You can be sure of the spelling of the last syllable but not of the pronunciation.
liaison Another French word throwing us an orthographical curve: a spare [i], just in case. That's an [s], too, that sounds like a [z].
library It may be as enjoyable as a berry patch but that isn't the way it is spelled. That first [r] should be pronounced, too.
license Where does English get the license to use both its letters for the sound [s] in one word?
lightning Learning how to omit the [e] in this word should lighten the load of English orthography a little bit.
maintenance The main tenants of this word are "main" and "tenance" even though it comes from the verb "maintain." English orthography at its most spiteful.
maneuver Man, the price you pay for borrowing from French is high. This one goes back to French main + oeuvre "hand-work," a spelling better retained in the British spelling, "manoeuvre."
medieval The medieval orthography of English even lays traps for you: everything about the MIDdle Ages is MEDieval or, as the British would write, mediaeval.
memento Why would something to remind of you of a moment be spelled "memento?" Well, it is.
millennium Here is another big word, large enough to hold two double consonants, double [l] and double [n].
miniature Since that [a] is seldom pronounced, it is seldom included in the spelling. This one is a "mini ature;" remember that.
minuscule Since something minuscule is smaller than a miniature, shouldn't they be spelled similarly? Less than cool, or "minus cule."
mischievous This mischievous word holds two traps: [i] before [e] and [o] before [u]. Four of the five vowels in English reside here.
misspell What is more embarrassing than to misspell the name of the problem? Just remember that it is mis + spell and that will spell you the worry about spelling "spell."
neighbor No wonder many speaking Black English say "hood" for "neighborhood"—it avoids the i-before-e rule and the silent "gh". If you use British spelling, it will cost you another [u]: "neighbour."
noticeable The [e] is noticeably retained in this word to indicate the [c] is "soft," pronounced like [s]. Without the [e], it would be pronounced "hard," like [k], as in "applicable."
occasionally Writers occasionally tire of doubling so many consonants and omit one, usually one of the [l]s. Don't you ever do it.
occurrence Remember not only the occurrence of double double consonants in this word, but that the suffix is -ence, not -ance. No reason, just the English language keeping us on our toes.
pastime Since a pastime is something you do to pass the time, you would expect a double [s] here. Well, there is only one. The second [s] was slipped through the cracks in English orthography long ago.
perseverance All it takes is perseverance and you, too, can be a (near-)perfect speller. The suffix is -ance for no reason at all.
personnel Funny Story (passed along by Bill Rudersdorf): The assistant Vice-President of Personnel notices that his superior, the VP himself, upon arriving at his desk in the morning opens a small, locked box, smiles, and locks it back again. Some years later when he advanced to that position (inheriting the key), he came to work early one morning to be assured of privacy. Expectantly, he opened the box. In it was a single piece of paper which said: "Two Ns, one L."
playwright Those who play right are right-players, not playwrights. Well, since they write plays, they should be "play-writes," wright right? Rong Wrong. Remember that a play writer in Old English was called a "play worker" and "wright" is from an old form of "work" (wrought iron, etc.)
possession Possession possesses more [s]s than a snake.
precede What follows, succeeds, so what goes before should, what? No, no, no, you are using logic. Nothing confuses English spelling more than common sense. "Succeed" but "precede." (Wait until you see "supersede.")
principal/principle The spelling principle to remember here is that the school principal is a prince and a pal (despite appearances)--and the same applies to anything of foremost importance, such as a principal principle. A "principle" is a rule. (Thank you, Meghan Cope, for help on this one.)
privilege According to the pronunciation (not "pronounciation"!) of this word, that middle vowel could be anything. Remember: two [i]s + two [e]s in that order.
pronunciation Nouns often differ from the verbs they are derived from. This is one of those. In this case, the pronunciation is different, too, an important clue.
publicly Let me publicly declare the rule (again): if the adverb comes from an adjective ending on -al, you include that ending in the adverb; if not, as here, you don't.
questionnaire The French doing it to us again. Double up on the [n]s in this word and don't forget the silent [e]. Maybe someday we will spell it the English way.
receive/receipt I hope you have received the message by now: [i] before [e] except after . . . .
recommend I would recommend you think of this word as the equivalent of commending all over again: re+commend. That would be recommendable.
referred Final consonants are often doubled before suffixes (remit: remitted, remitting). However, this rule applies only to accented syllables ending on [l] and [r], e.g. "rebelled," "referred" but "traveled," "buffered" and not containing a diphthong, e.g. "prevailed," "coiled."
reference Refer to the last mentioned word and also remember to add -ence to the end for the noun.
relevant The relevant factor here is that the word is not "revelant," "revelent," or even "relevent." [l] before [v] and the suffix -ant.
restaurant 'Ey, you! Remember, these two words when you spell "restaurant." They are in the middle of it.
rhyme Actually, "rime" was the correct spelling until 1650. After that, egg-heads began spelling it like "rhythm." Why? No rhyme nor reason other than to make it look like "rhythm."
rhythm This one was borrowed from Greek (and conveniently never returned) so it is spelled the way we spell words borrowed from Greek and conveniently never returned.
schedule If perfecting your spelling is on your schedule, remember the [sk] is spelled as in "school." (If you use British or Canadian pronunciation, why do you pronounce this word [shedyul] but "school," [skul]? That has always puzzled me.)
separate How do you separate the [e]s from the [a]s in this word? Simple: the [e]s surround the [a]s.
sergeant The [a] needed in both syllables of this word has been pushed to the back of the line. Remember that, and the fact that [e] is used in both syllables, and you can write your sergeant without fear of misspelling his rank.
supersede This word supersedes all others in perversity. As if we don't have enough to worry about, keeping words on -ceed and -cede ("succeed," "precede," etc.) straight in our minds, this one has to be different from all the rest. The good news is: this is the only English word based on this stem spelled -sede.
their/they're/there They're all pronounced the same but spelled differently. Possessive is "their" and the contraction of "they are" is "they're." Everywhere else, it is "there."
threshold This one can push you over the threshold. It looks like a compound "thresh + hold" but it isn't. Two [h]s are enough.
twelfth Even if you omit the [f] in your pronunciation of this word (which you shouldn't do), it is retained in the spelling.
tyranny If you are still resisting the tyranny of English orthography at this point, you must face the problem of [y] inside this word, where it shouldn't be. The guy is a "tyrant" and his problem is "tyranny." (Don't forget to double up on the [n]s, too.)
until I will never stop harping on this until this word is spelled with an extra [l] for the last time!
vacuum If your head is not a vacuum, remember that the silent [e] on this one married the [u] and joined him inside the word where they are living happily ever since. Well, the evidence is suggestive but not conclusive. Anyway, spell this word with two [u]s and not like "volume."
weather Whether you like the weather or not, you have to write the [a] after the [e] when you spell it.
weird It is weird having to repeat this rule so many times: [i] before [e] except after...? (It isn't [w]!)

Выражение множественности

Для образования множественного числа исчисляемых существительных служит окончание –s. Для выражения множественности в английском языке служат слова типа many, much, a lot of, plenty of, обозначающие....

Вторая форма глагола

Вторая, или прошедшая, форма глагола обозначает формы типа: делал, писал, читал. Вторая форма большинства глаголов образуется с помощью окончания –ed ('call — called, play — played, paint — painted'). Однако ряд глаголов....

Все временные конструкции в активном залоге

  Present Past Future Future– in– the– Past
Simple (Indefinite) He sometimes, usually, often, rarely, seldom from time to time, always, never writes letters everyday, on Saturdays, at the weekend, in the....

Времена и месяцы года

Обратите внимание, что названия месяцев года всегда пишутся с большой буквы.

Winter зима
December декабрь
January январь
February февраль
spring весна
March март
April апрель
May май
summer лето
June июнь
July июль
August август
autumn осень
September сентябрь
October октябрь
November ноябрь

Грамматика - Виды вопросительных предложений

Общие вопросы образуются: вспомогательный (), или модальный, или + подлежащее + сказуемое (остальные глаголы) + остальные члены предложения.

Do you know her?
Have you seen her?
Can you do this?
Was it made....

Грамматика - Виды предложений

Повелительное наклонение образуется глаголом в неопределенной форме без частицы .

Close the door. Закрой дверь.
Don't do it! Не делай этого!

Побудительное наклонение образуется с помощью....